Computational authorship studies are an increasingly popular topic for research among specialists per both cervello elettronico science and the humanities

Computational authorship studies are an increasingly popular topic for research among specialists per both cervello elettronico science and the humanities

It can be considered per form of style-based document authentication (Echtheitskritik), which has valuable applications that extend well beyond the domain of literary analysis, esatto, for instance, the domain of forensic sciences. According to Stamatatos’s 2009 survey of the field, ‘[t]he main pensiero behind statistically or computationally-supported authorship attribution is that by measuring some textual features we can distinguish between texts written by different authors.’22 22 Ed. Stamatatos, ‘Per survey’ (n. 14, above) 538. This basic assumption implies that it should be possible sicuro assess, for any new unseen document, whether or not it was written by other authors for whom we have texts available. Nowadays computational authorship studies are often considered a subfield of stylometry sopra the digital humanities, the broader computational study of the writing style of texts.23 23 D. Holmes, ‘The evolution of stylometry durante humanities scholarship’, LLC 13 (1998) 111–17.

While stylometry has verso rich history, dating back esatto at least the nineteenth century, it is clear that it received its most important impetus only sopra the past two or three decades, stimulated by the rise of (personal) computing and the increased availability of large bodies of text sopra electronic form. Apart from the influential, yet more conventional, statistical analyses carried out by pioneers such as Mosteller and Wallace or John Burrows well before the 1990s, an influential approach durante authorship studies has been puro approach the attribution of anonymous texts as a ‘text categorization’ problem.24 24 Mosteller and Wallace, Inference and disputed authorship (n. 4, above) and J. Burrows, Computation into criticism: a study of Jane Austen’s novels (Oxford 1987). Heavily influenced by parallel research in pc science, the intenzione was onesto optimize verso statistical classifier on example texts by verso number of available candidate authors, much like a spam filter nowadays is still trained on manually annotated emails sicuro learn how to distinguish between ‘junk’ email and normal messages.25 25 F. Sebastiani, ‘Machine learning con automated text categorisation’, ACM Calcolatore elettronico Surveys 34 (2002) 1–47. After addestramento such a classifier on this example datazione, the classifier could then be used preciso categorize or classify anonymous text as belonging puro one of the istruzione authors’ oeuvres.

It resembles a police lineup, in which the correct author of an anonymous text has sicuro be singled out from verso series of available candidate authors for whom reference or ‘training’ material is available

This text categorization setup is commonly known as ‘authorship attribution’.26 26 The following paragraph heavily draws on M. Koppel and Y. Winter, ‘Determining if two documents are written by the same author’, JASIST 65 (2014) 178–187. For a number of years, practitioners of stylometry have che razza di onesto acknowledge the limitations of authorship attribution, because it necessarily assumes that the correct target author is indeed included in the batteria of candidates. Durante many real-world cases, this problematic assumption cannot possibly be made, because the batteria of relevant candidates is difficult or impossible onesto establish beforehand. Because of this, the setup of authorship verification has recently been introduced as a new framework: here, the task is esatto verify whether or not an anonymous document was written by one or several of a series of candidate authors. Per some sense, authorship verification redefines the text categorization problem by adding an additional category label: ‘None of the above.’

Mediante the present context, it should be emphasized that the problem posed by the HA is verso ‘vanilla’ example of a problem mediante authorship verification: while the corpo indeed contains per number of (auto-) attributions, the veracity of all of these has been questioned per previous scholarship

Verification is hence an increasingly common experimental setup durante authorship studies, and is the topic of verso dedicated track per the yearly PAN competition, an annual competition on finding computational solutions esatto issues sopra present-day textual forensics, mostly related sicuro the detection of plagiarism, authorship, and aimable programma misuse (such as grooming or Wikipedia vandalism).27 27 The competition’s website is The most recent survey of an authorship verification track is: E. Stamatatos et al., ‘Overview of the author identification task at PAN 2015′ mediante Working Notes Papers of the CLEF 2015 Evaluation Labs, ed. L. Cappellato et al. (2015). Generally speaking, authorship verification is per more generic problem than authorship attribution – i.addirittura. every attribution problem could, con principle, be cast as verso verification problem – but it has also proven esatto be more challenging. Durante our experiments, we have therefore attempted puro radically minimize any assumptions on our part as puro the authorial provenance of the texts durante the HA. For each piece of text analysed below, we propose esatto independently assess the probability that it was written by one of the (alleged) individual authors identified per the corpo.

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